ESP© by Psychic Dr. Rose Ann Schwab
Extra Sensory Perception
ESP is most commonly called the "sixth
sense." It is sensory information that an individual receives which comes
beyond the ordinary five senses sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch. It
can provide the individual with information of the present, past, and
future; as it seems to originate in a second, or alternate reality.
Telepathy is from two Latin words meaning "Feeling at a
distance" and many of the people you know may have this wonderful gift - in
fact, you may already be a 'Telepath' and not even realize it! However, even
if you do not yet posses telepathic powers, with the proper training, many
of you can learn to develop your natural gifts - and even those who already
posses telepathic skills can improve their capabilities.
The term "ESP" was used in 1870 by Sir Richard Burton. A French researcher,
Dr. Paul Joire, in 1892 used the term ESP to describe the ability of person
who had been hypnotized or were in a trance
state to externally sense things without using their ordinary senses.
However, the phenomena of ESP activity has been indicated much earlier, some
say even in Biblical times. Although there is no clear evidence as to the
certainty of the phenomena it has attracted the attention and enthusiasm of
many throughout the centuries.
In the 1920's a Munich ophthalmologist, Dr. Rudolph Tischner, used ESP in
describing the "externalization of sensibility." Then in the 1930s the
American parapsychologist J. B. Rhine popularized the term to include
psychic phenomena similar to sensory functions. Rhine was among the first
parapsychologists to test ESP phenomena in the laboratory.
The first systematic study of ESP was conducted in 1882, when the Society
for Psychical Research was founded n London. The journals of this society
Proceedings and Journal were published as well as other
publications in the United States and the Netherlands. Soon other countries
were reporting similar findings.
However, these first studies of ESP were rarely experimental. The studies
consisted of mostly spontaneous incidents that were located. Many of the
individuals studied were self-claimed "sensitives" or psychics. Rarely were
they examined under anything resembling laboratory conditions. The
researchers conducting the examinations resembled prosecuting lawyers. The
subjects were bombarded with questions, those standing up the best were
The Rhine experiments:
The first card-guessing ESP experiments were conducted by Rhine at Duke
University in 1930. The cards consisted of five designs, now called ESP
symbols, a square, a circle, a plus sign, a five pointed star, and a set of
three wavy lines. The symbols were printed singly, in black ink, on cards
resembling playing cards.
In the classic Rhine experiments on ESP, the subject tries to guess or
"call" the order of the five symbols when they are randomly arranged in a
deck of 25 ESP cards. The likelihood of calling a card correctly by chance
is one in five. Therefore, it is possible to calculate how often a
particular score is likely to occur by chance in a given number of calls. It
was Rhine'' argument that when his subjects made high scores that could be
expected by chance only once in a thousand tries, or once in a million, they
displayed "extra chance" results, or ESP.
The early experiments faced several criticisms. Two were automatically
dismissed: (1) The statistics were unsound which was refuted by the
president of the American Mathematical Association. (2) That ESP is physical
impossibility which begs the question.
Several appropriate criticisms were accepted by Rhine which he used to
improve his experiments. Examples are: (1) There may have been sensory cues.
An example of this is that if a strong light shined on the back of the ESP
cards, it might be possible to see the symbol through the back. Currently to
avoid this possibility the target card is covered by an oblique shielding,
or kept far from the subject. (2) An experimenter that knows the target
might whisper it or otherwise give a cue to the subject. Presently no one in
contact with the subject knows the target. (3) More hits might be recorded
than actually occurred.. Currently hits and responses are recorded by
machine or by someone not knowing either.
Three criticism remain: (1) The "file drawer" effect. Only favorable results
are published. Larger experimental data like one in a million make this
unlikely. (2) Results are inconsistent and not repeatable. This can be
remedied statistically. (3) Charges of fraud. Can be refuted by other
reputable investigators obtaining similar results.
There was a finding which seemed puzzling until better understood. While
some label it "missing-ESP" it might be thought of as reverse-ESP too. It is
found among subject who dislike ESP. Even though the subjects were
consciously trying to achieve good scores, they scored lower than chance. An
unconscious factor seemed to come into play here. Experimenters have found
they can predict higher scores for some groups (for example, those who are
interested and relaxed), and lower scores for other groups (those who show
fear, negativity, or boredom). The factor of missing-ESP indicates why ESP
data is unreliable.
More recently computer games are increasingly being used to test ESP. The
computer is programmed so that a random series determines the targets, and
the subjects attempt to outguess the computer.
Another factor that researchers and experimenters must watched for in ESP
and all psychical experiments is preconceived or previously learned
knowledge. This concerns any knowledge which might influence the subject's
activity. For example, a person might say she sensed her son would telephone
her on that certain day at that specific time. If the son had previously
called her in such a fashion, then her sensation must be suspect for it
might have been based upon knowledge of her son's previous performance. A
person might strongly feel that he would receive an email message from a
friend on a certain day, and he does; but, can this be considered a ESP
phenomenon considering that this person had not head from the other person
for sometime and was expecting the message. The point being made is that
when dealing with psychic phenomena all factors must be considered when
examining the performance.
ESP in General:
In New Frontiers of the Mind (1937) Rhine said that ESP
experiments were changing the way people thought the mind sensed
information. Historically learned people held the human mind received
information through the ordinary five senses, and that therefore, the mind
is subject to the laws of the mechanical world. Laboratory tests have
attempted to determine the existence of ESP, and discover the physical
mechanism by which it operates. "The mind has been equated with the brain,
and scientists search to discover how ESP registers in the brain/mind."
However, increasing evidence is demonstrating that ESP does exist, but it
cannot be explained or quantified by physical laws; and furthermore, that
the mind (consciousness) and the brain are two separate entities.
Simultaneously, research in quantum physics points to the existence of a
second, nonmaterial universe. So, the time is fast approaching when Western
scientists must come to terms with the Eastern mystical concept: "that an
extrasensory force exists in another realty, and intersects and integrates
with the physical world."
In function, ESP is dissimilar to the ordinary senses. There is no location
like governs the other senses which receive information through various
parts of the body; and it is not dependent on any of the other five senses.
ESP is independent of such factors as geography, time, intelligence, age, or
ESP has been given various names. In the 19th
century is was called "cryptesthesia," later it was labeled "relesthesia"
which since became
"seeing in the distance." It was Rhine who coined the term "general
extrasensory perception" (GESP) to include both telepathy and
clairvoyance. Later the term psi was
designated to cover ESP and PK.
It was researcher Lousia E. Rhine who proposed the theory that ESP starts in
the unconscious, a storehouse of memories, hopes and fears. At this point a
contact is made between the objective world and the center of the mind. The
person remains unaware of this contact until or unless the information is
brought to the conscious level. Also, the psychiatrist Carl G. Jung proposed
a similar theory that the conscious mind has subliminal psychic access to
the collective unconscious, a vast repository of accumulative wisdom and
experience of the human race.
Others theories attempting to explain ESP have been produced. One such
theory involved macrophages, cells present in connective tissue, lymph
nodes, and bone marrow and tied to nerve endings. The person thought these
might be the body's ESP organs, sending and receiving impressions below the
normal perceptive level. Such cells are more sensitive and active during
childhood, but deteriorate without proper diet.
Some theories involve the discussion of two subconsciousnesses, the second
one sometimes called the superconsciousness, soul, subliminal self,
transcendent ego, dream self and several other terms. The argument rest on
the hypothesis that two realities exist, the physical one and a second one.
ESP can occur when there is a integration between both realities. This
occurs infrequently only when the barriers between the realities are broken
which does not happen often because if it did all unconscious thought would
flood and overflow the conscious mind. A condition which the mind could not
When considering types or forms that ESP might take dreams become an
important factor, especially in relationship to the theory of two realities.
Upon this basis dreams were separated into two categories: realistic, vivid
having detailed imagery of the information conveyed, and intuition which
includes "gut feelings." forebodings, and premonitions; and unrealistic
dreams containing fantastical imagery and symbols. Hallucinations that
relayed visual and auditory information also were included. Rhine suggested
the reason for dreams being efficient carriers of ESP messages is because
the barriers surrounding the conscious mind appear to be thinnest.
It has been discovered that the natural tendency for ESP in individuals can
be distorted by previous prejudices, thoughts, and conditioning. Likewise,
inaccurate ESP messages may be the result of distortions and blockages of
the conscious mind. However, in times of crisis such as accidents and death
of loved ones, ESP messages seem to occur spontaneously. It is theorized
that perhaps trauma and shock enable negative information to penetrate the
subliminal barriers more easily than happy information.
There are theories concerning individuals who possess ESP and how they
acquired this ability. One theory holds that some people such as seers,
prophets and diviners were bore with the gift which was inherited by their
relatives. Another theory hold that it is` a primordial sense which has
decreased in populations as their cultures advanced. Still another theory
claims ESP is a supersense which evolves in the nervous system.
Psychical research does support the theory that everyone is born with ESP
capability, though some may possess more than others. Most people have
experienced at least one ESP experience in their lives. It was found in a
survey published in 1987 by the University of Chicago's National Opinion
Research Council, that 67 percent of all adult Americans believed they have
experienced ESP. Eleven years earlier the figure was 58 percent. It was
thought the increase indicates an increased acceptance of the possibility of
ESP among the general public.
Gertrude Schmeidler, The City College, New York,